The Sangam Age came to an end during the middle of the Third century A.D. The closing years of the Sangam Age was called the post-Sangam period. Then the Kalabhras captured the Tamil country from the Chera, Chola and Pandyan rulers.

Tamil country during the post-Sangam period

There were indications of the declining trends in the Tamil society even during the post-Sangam period. The North Indian religions, namely Buddhism and Jainism began to spread in the Tamil region. The traditional religious beliefs of the Tamil people gave way to the new religious ideas.

There was also a declining trend in the social life of the Tamil people. Social ethics began to decline during this period. The Tamil literature of this period reflected the ethical and moral ideas with a view to reform the society. The post-Sangam literature consists of the twin-epics - Silappathikaram and Manimekalai and also Pathinen Keezhkanakku.

The impulse of these works was oriented towards reforming the society. For example, morality in political and social life had been strictly insisted in the poems of Thirukkural, Inna Narpathu, Iniyavai Narpathu and Naladiyar. But finally, the Kalabhra rule had put an end to the classic age of the Sangam.